Simply put, Wi-Fi spectrum analysis is performed to determine the strength of a Wi-Fi signal and what might be interfering with that signal strength.
Wi-Fi is broadcast on either the 2.4 or 5 GHz bands, which are further split into channels designed to separate networks and prevent interference. However, the sharp increase in network and IoT devices, security cameras, cordless phones, and car alarms competing for bandwidth, as well as BLE devices attempting to pair, increases the chance that interference will occur.
A spectrum analyzer can pinpoint the source of interference and allow the end user to make network modifications to diminish or eliminate the interference. For example, if a channel on the 2.4 or 5 GHz bands is crowded, you can move your device to another channel. In instances where the network contains security access points, spectrum analysis can identify rogue devices on the network, allowing the access point to isolate and eliminate the device from the network.